Marketing Principles

 drawn from

"The 22 Immutable Laws of MARKETING" by Al Ries and Jack Trout


To gain and maintain top market share, use these principles.


LEADERSHIP: It's better to be first than it is to be better.

CATEGORY: If you can not be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in.

MIND: It's better to be first in the mind than to be first in the marketplace.

PERCEPTIONS: Marketing is not a battle of products, it's a battle of perceptions.

FOCUS -- WORD: The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect's mind.

EXCLUSIVITY: Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect's mind.

LADDER: The strategy to use depends on which rung you occupy on the ladder. Prospects fit what you claim with you market position.

DUALITY: In the long run, every market becomes a two-horse race.

OPPOSITE: If you're shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader.

DIVISION: Over time, a category will divide and become two or more.

PERSPECTIVE: Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time.

DON'T EXTEND: There's an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand.

SACRIFICE: You have to give up something to get something. Serve thoroughly.

ATTRIBUTES: For every attribute, there is an opposite, effective attribute.

CANDOR: When you admit a negative, the prospect will give you a positive.

BOLD STROKE: In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results.

UNPREDICTABILITY: You can't predict the future.

ARROGANCE: Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure.

FAILURE: Failure is to be expected and accepted.

HYPE: When it is getting high coverage in the press, it usually is in trouble.

TRENDS: Successful marketing is built on an enduring trend not a fad.

RESOURCES: Without critical mass an idea will not get off the ground.

Much of the above is direct quotes from the book. Some of it is changed to support brevity and clarity.

A summary: Focus. Create and manage clear and simple perceptions.



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